23:7 -- "You shall not abhor an Edomite for he is your brother.". For this sin, God damned the Amalekites, commanding the Jews to wage a holy war to exterminate them. [12] They appear to have lived a nomadic or seminomadic lifestyle along the fringes of southern Canaan's agricultural zone. When Adam and Eve sin they are exiled from the garden and condemned to die: you are dust, and to dust you shall return. (Genesis 3:19 ESV). When God in judgment withdrew His hand of blessing and ordered them to go back S into the wilderness (14:1-25), the people again disobeyed God, and with their own feeble effort attacked the Amalekites. When it says that the iniquity of the Amorites has not reached its fullness, one way of looking at it is that there was still a chance to eliminate the gene pool of the seed of the elohim. 47:19), then this battle was waged in the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula. They were the first nation to attack the Jewish people after the Exodus from Egypt, and they are seen as the archetypal enemy of the Jews. They were among the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon and were condemned to annihilation by Samuel. d. Jethro visits and watches Moses Judge the people and offers Moses advice. Despite the title "king" the Amalekites were not a nation with fixed borders and a centralized administrative structure. The proposed identification of the Amalekites with the Amaw or the Shasu of Egyptian sources is untenable. Saul Defeats the Amalekites but Spares Their King. 2 This is what the Lord Almighty says: 'I will punish the Amalekites for what they did to Israel when they waylaid them as they came up from Egypt. He only attacked one city in Havilah. Each rebelled against God and refused to repent out of pride. Was David responsible for Saul's insane order to slaughter everyone in the city of Nob (1 Sam. In Genesis 1 we are told: Then God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. 47:19). This verse records the words of God through the prophet Samuel to Saul, "Now go and attack the Amalekites and completely destroy everything they have. There the Amalekites appear to have found them and cruelly massacred them. --This decree was entrusted to Joshua in the first instance, as the "servant of the Book" ( Exodus 17:14 ); here it is enjoined upon the nation of Israel. Thanks for contributing an answer to Biblical Hermeneutics Stack Exchange! Answer: The Amalekites were a tribe first mentioned during the time of Abraham ( Genesis 14:7 ). Observing this connection, there is no need, as some have attempted, to emend the text of Judges 1:16 from the people (Heb. Rather than there being a contradiction in scripture, the more obvious reason for the conundrum is that although Saul attacked the Amalekite army he did not not complete the task according to Gods instructions. In particular, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and John Calvin have defended a literal reading of these passages at length. 25:17). (Gen. 25:18). By clicking Accept all cookies, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy. New International Version (NIV). The. Territory. Were the previous Israelites living in Samaria called Samarians too? 25:19 Not to forget Amalek's atrocities and ambush on our journey from Egypt in the desert, Some commentators have discussed the ethical deficiency of the commandment to exterminate all the Amalekites, especially including the command to kill children, and the presumption of collective punishment. b.c. 24:20), had no wish to fight alone against Israel but rather, with the help of many nations (Mekhilta, ed. An Amalekite is a name for a member of the Amalekite nation. The Amalekites are not simply threatening a people group with their determination to wipe out Israel, but they are a threat to the salvation plan of God for all other nations. (1871). Human beings have a special dignity and status relative to God and the rest of his creation. There seems to be a contradiction is scriptures. When they are in right relationship with God they mediate blessings; when they are in active rebellion, they mediate corruption, chaos and death. Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. So Saul puts together an army of two hundred thousand foot soldiers and ten thousand men from Judah. The Amalekites. Where does the word Rephidim appear in the Bible? [50], Maimonides explains that the commandment to destroy the nation of Amalek requires the Jewish people to peacefully request that they accept upon themselves the Seven Laws of Noah and pay a tax to the Jewish kingdom. Amalekites oppresses Israel with the help of Moab (Judges 3:12, 13), Amalekites appressed Israel with the help of Midian (Judges 6:3, 7:12). Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. According to I Samuel 15:7, "Saul defeated the Amalekites from Havilah all the way to Shur, which is east of (or close to) Egypt." For this sin, God damned the Amalekites, commanding the Jews to wage a holy war to exterminate them. A similar expression occurs in the description of the much wider range of the Ishmaelites: "From Havilah, by Shur, which is east of (or close to) Egypt, etc." [7] This role appears in several stories: In Genesis 14:7, the "field of the Amalekites" is mentioned, though the person Amalek had not yet been born. and more. 15:4; Ezek. Browse other questions tagged, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site. Their first encounter with Israel was when they attacked the rear of Israel but were defeated by Joshua at Rephidim (Ex 17:8-13, Deut 25:17, 18). Haman was "the son of Hammedatha the Agagite" ( Esther 3:1 ), probably directly descended from the Amalekite king Samuel killed. men, who rode upon camels and fled. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. Moses appointed Joshua to lead the Israelite army not because of his own weakness or advanced years but because he wished "to train Joshua in warfare" (Mekhilta, 179; Ex. This implies that Israel is commanded to wage a holy war of extermination against Amalek (Deut. One of the descendants is the Amorites. The Amorites' sin had not escaped God's notice. David Rather in Numbers 24:20 Amalek as first is to be understood as its being the first among the nations to attack Israel in her Exodus experiences (cf. Amalek was one of the sons of Eliphaz and a grandson of Esau (Gen 36:15, 16; 1 Chron 1:36). He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the . Schreiber, Mordecai (ed.). Because of Sauls failure to wipe out the Amalekites, they continued to harass and plunder the Israelites over hundreds of years. So we should probably think of Agag as an important Amalekite clan leader, not a formal king of the 'nation' of Amalek. The psalm is a hymn psalm, one of the Royal psalms, praising God as the King of His people. Neither does the title "king," applied to Agag, necessarily imply an organized kingdom as customarily found in settled regions, and it may be presumed that Agag was a type of tribal chief called a king, like the kings of Midian (Num. 1. In this particular case, therefore, YHWH, who according to Exodus 17:16 had sworn eternal enmity to Amalek, permitted Amalek to defeat Israel, but, since He had specifically warned Israel against this particular undertaking, there is no real contradiction between Exodus 17:16 and Numbers 14:45. read in Amalek. Judges 6:3, 33; 7:12 depict the Amalekites joining forces with the Midianites (who seem to have wandered in the area of Sinai [Exod 4:19] and wilderness E of Paran [1 Kings 11:18]; and also in the territory E of Gilead [Judg 8:4-12]), and making camel raids against the agriculture communities of Israel as far S as Gaza (6:3, 4). Here we have an example of not the extermination of the Northern Ten Tribes but exiling them and replacing them with other people groups. The Arabians mention Imlik, Amalik, or Ameleka among the aborigines of Arabia, the remains of which were mingled with the descendants of Qahtan (Joktan) and Adnan and became Mostarabs or Mocarabes, that is, Arabians mixed with foreigners. ; Josh. There may be geographical significance in the listing of Amalek after Edom in the Song of Balaam (Num. a. also Judg 10:12). The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". How come David fought an Amalekite army that Saul had allegedly eradicated a few years earlier? They were nomadic and moved around. The name "Amalek" can refer to the nation's founder, a grandson of Esau; his descendants, the Amalekites; or the territories of Amalek, which they inhabited. The line of promise thus becomes the locus of blessing and cursing in the world. Saul conducted military campaigns against the Amalekites that while under God's instruction did not please God because the annihilation was far from complete and probably only included most of the army. Joshua the valiant warrior defeated the Amalekites militarily, while at the same time Moses was perched on a hill overlooking the battlefield with his arms raised to heaven. The Amalekites provide an explanation for the irrational and intense hatred for Jews that echoes through human history. Thus, in 1 Samuel 15:3, it was considered necessary to destroy the livestock in order to destroy Amalek. The district over which they ranged was south of Judah and probably extended into northern Arabia. The royal line of the Kings is what led to Haman. This brought a curse of ultimate annihilation from Moses (Ex 17:14-16, Deut 25:19) and Balaam (Num 24:20). Jewish Literacy. It is related that when Samuel put Agag to death he said "As your sword has bereaved women, so shall your mother be the most bereaved of women" (I Sam. Why does Acts not mention the deaths of Peter and Paul? M. Weippert, Semitische Nomaden des zweiten Jahrtausends. On the analogy of the genealogies of the sons of Nahor by concubinage (Gen. 22:24) and of Abraham's sons by Keturah and Hagar it may be surmised that Amalek's genealogy was intended to imply his special status as a nomad as distinct from the sedentary Edomites, in the same way as the Ishmaelites or the children of Keturah were distinct from the sedentary descendants of Abraham. The wages of sin is death Old Testament and New. When David came against the army of the Amalekites it may have been composed of warriors from various tribes mercenaries or soldiers of fortune who had joined up with the Amalakites against Israel. What was the reason for David to leave no man or women alive? Although the story of David's victory over the Amalekites is intended to add to his glory, it need not be doubted that it reflects an historical truth about David's wars against the desert tribes in his premonarchial period, being distinguished by exact topographical indications, by correct military-legal conduct, and the division of booty among the cities of Judah and of the Negev (30:9, 2131). If you are interested in more Bible teaching from Pastor Paul you can access the entire library of Into The Word episodes through the Audio tab on the Into the Word website. The New Jewish Encyclopedia. ), they were one of the first nations the Israelites encountered. 5:14). Because of this and their many other sins, God vowed to blot them out from under heaven (Ex. Horeb. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Smiths Bible Dictionary Rephidim (Exodus 17:1,8; 19:2) The name means restsor stays, i.e. The term "city of Amalek" is not to be understood literally, and it is possible that it means a fortified camp. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. It is also customary to recite Deuteronomy 25:1718 (see below) on the Shabbat before Purim. Israel had many enemies and it is possible that the Amalekites who had not been killed by Saul sought the help of neighbouring tribes to harass David by stealing and by abduction. The Amalekites harassed the Hebrews during their Exodus from Egypt and attacked them at Rephidim near Mount Sinai, where they were defeated by Joshua. Esau and Amalek are a type of Satan who was ousted by Jesus' redemptive cross and lost his place of rulership over all who possess the born again birthright via being bought and paid for by the precious blood of the Lamb (Romans 5:9; 2 Corinthians 5:15-21; Colossians 2:14-19; 1 Peter 1:18-19, etc. (1 Samuel 30:17-18) Perhaps the Amalakites conscripted the help of their friendly neighbours. Deuteronomy explicitly admonishes the Israelites to remember Amalek and blot out its memory from under heaven, whereas in the Exodus version this can only be inferred (see above). Maybe the name stuck to the new people group even if they had no direct blood ties to Amalek. next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young This brought a curse of ultimate annihilation from Moses (Ex 17:14-16, Deut 25:19) and Balaam (Num 24:20). 3 Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have . Saul spared only the best of the sheep and of the oxen, besides Agag. He who has ears, let him hear. (Matthew 13:4043 ESV). They were the first nation to attack the Israelites when they left Egypt ( Exodus 17:8; Numbers 14:45 ). people spared the best of the sheep and of the oxen, to sacrifice unto The Lord arrests him on the side of the road and says: Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? (Acts 9:4 ESV). Thus, in 1 Samuel 15:3, it was considered necessary to destroy the livestock in order to destroy Amalek.[32]. In the wilderness wanderings. In Genesis 12 God entered into covenant with the family of Abraham. Later Amalek raided the Negeb and, in Davids absence, completely conquered Ziklag, taking captive the inhabitants including Davids two wives, Ahinoam and Abigail (1 Sam 30:1-6). The Amalekites are one of the peoples dwelling in the southern part of Canaan. That principle is immediately illustrated later in the chapter. 2. The Exodus and Conquest are thus simultaneously works of salvation and judgment. Although Samuel alludes to Amalek's provocation of Israel, "in opposing them on the way, when they came up out of Egypt" (15:2), there is no mention of the battle of Rephidim and of the victorious war of Moses and Joshua. Just as the weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the end of the age. Matthew George Easton advocated that the Amalekites were not descendants of Amalek by taking a literal approach to Genesis 14:7. However, such an interpretation contradicts the meaning of the chapter whose purpose is to relate how various tribes and families became annexed to Judah, i.e., "the people." So this explains why David would still be fighting Amalekites in his time. They had attacked Ziklag and burned it, 2 and had taken captive the women and everyone else in it, both young and old. He was rebuked by God for not doing just that. What positional accuracy (ie, arc seconds) is necessary to view Saturn, Uranus, beyond? rev2023.4.21.43403. What does a shepherd do with his rod and staff? 1998. Also, the text describes "king Agag and his people" as being destroyed. ", "ISIS a Reenactment of Biblical War Between Israel and the Amalekites, Military Analysts Say", "Unmasking Purim, Fighting Amalek: Behind the whimsy of this holiday lie some deep lessons for living", "Esther 3 Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges", "Ethical Criticism of the Bible: The Case of Divinely Mandated Genocide", "Religion, nationalism and genocide: ancient Judaism revisited", "1 Samuel 15: Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers", "Metaphysical Hatred and Sacred Genocide: The Questionable Role of Amalek in Biblical Literature", Amalek, Based on the teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Remember Amalek: A lesson in Divine Providence, Latznu: Popular Culture and the Disciples of Amalek, Antiquities of the Jews - by Josephus Flavius, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amalek&oldid=1149600431, This page was last edited on 13 April 2023, at 07:21. Otherwise, their fate, will be identical to that of the Amalekites. Thus says the LORD of hosts, I have noted what Amalek did to Israel in opposing them on the way when they came up out of Egypt. In rabbinic literature, the reasons for the unusual eternal remembrance of Amalek are the following: (1) Amalek is the irreconcilable enemy and it is forbidden to show mercy foolishly to one wholly dedicated to the destruction of Israel (PR 12:47). The Hebrew word used in 1 Samuel 15:7 has the same meaning as in 1 Samuel 15:4 (and 15:20). [Genesis 36:12], Regarding Samuel's destruction of them, a casual reading can lead to the assumption that one big battle was described. 34:5; Josh. What does the word Baca mean in the Bible? The Amalekites harassed the Hebrews during their Exodus from Egypt and attacked them at Rephidim near Mount Sinai, where they were defeated by Joshua. Amalek, a son of Esau's son Eliphaz, was presumably the eponymous ancestor of the Amalekites. The Amalekites seem to have been fairly well controlled under the monarchy, for the OT does not mention them again until the time of Hezekiah (c. 700 b.c.) Only if they refuse must they be physically killed. That is possible but we do not have any documentation. He said: I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. valerie pola bio, allen and roth granite countertops,